History Present Biological Charakteristics Attributes Grain Quality and Use
Soil, Climate and Temperature Requirements Cultivation and Manuring Crop Management Harvest Postharvest Processing and Storage


(Triticum dicoccon Schrank.)

Emmer Emmer Emmer


Triticum dicoccon Schrank. is an archaic cereal originating in the mountains of the Fertile Crescent, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Palestine. It had an important role in nutrition of the old-time nations, such as Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians. Emmer was found in Europe too, especially in the mountainous areas of Pyrenees, Middle East, and North Africa. In the East Moravia and Slovakia in 1970's.



In Germany, Belgium, Switzerland emmer flour is added in wheat bread. USA has very promising market for emmer. Czech Republic keeps range of emmer in organic quality.


Biological Characteristics

Tetraploid (2n=28) hulled wheat. Spike is almost always with awns and breaks into double seed spikelets during thrashing. Its height is up to 75-120 cm.



Emmer is well adaptable to any growing conditions, has high nutritional value and good quality of grain. Its impact on digestive system and degradation of cholesterol in blood stream is very positive.


Grain quality and Use

Protein content varies from 15 to 24 %. Emmer has higher content of vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin) and minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Zn). Lysine and treonin are limiting amino acids. This cereal is easily digestible with no anti-nutrition compounds.


Emmer is regionally known as "okrýž" or "polopolba". Aromatic and highly nutritious porridge can be prepared from it. Groats (sausages, soups), flat bread in Italy known as a "foccacia", bakery and confectionary products, and pasta belong among the most common products.




Soil, Climate and Temperature Requirements

Emmer grows well on nutritionally poor and podsol soils and does not require special temperature conditions. Its deeper root system makes this plant more resistant to drought.


Cultivation and Manuring

Cultivation of soil before sowing is very similar to common wheat. High level of nitrogen will increase the risk of lodging.


Crop Management

This crop is sown in well-firmed seedbed in spring, the best in spikelets (two seeds) because hulls can protect the germ from soil pathogens. The amount of seed is 3-3.5 millions seeds per hectare under 100 % germinating ability. The most suitable depth is 3-5 cm. This crop is managed during growing season the same way as common wheat.



To avoid excessive losses of grain during harvesting the combine harvester adjustment is necessary.


Postharvest Processing and Storage

Once harvested grain (spikelets) should be separated from foreign material and other impurities. Spikelets if not used and stored as seed are dehusked. The most common method of the husk removing is abrading by abrasive wheels. There is some risk of damage on outer layer of the seed.